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Thanks also to his dear friend John Saliba for his continued help and support. 15 Consonants 15 Transliterations ....................... 1-6 Stress 1 7 Accents & Dialects IS GRAMMAR Word Order,. Transliterations of examples in the Grammar chapter reflect the written style. man shiraz ra didam (lit: I Shiraz ra saw-I) * be Dative Case be shows that the noun is the receiver or goal of an action I went to Tehran. ) * a z Ablative Case az indicates from where an action originated I came from Tabriz man emruz az tabriz amadam today. Yavar dedicates this book to his wife Mojgan, who helped with writing and proofreading, and who has always been an inspiration, FROM THE PUBLISHER Peter D'Qnghia and Karin V ids trap Monk co-ordinated; Dariush Salehi helped edit the script; Hay a Husseini proofread, researched arid dreamed of the desert; Natasha Vellcley produced the map; Yukiyoshi Kamimura excelled in design while smoking his hubblc bubble; Vicki Webb edited and scoffed plenty of ghalive; Andrew Mc Leod drew the cover and inside illustrations, and Fabrice Rocher oversaw design. man be tehran raftam (lit: I be Tehran wen E-I) * dar Locative Case dar before a noun to shows where an action takes place Can I meet you in mitavanam shoma ra dar the hotel? (lit: I today az Tabriz came-I) 22 Case ON THE CASE In English, we're able to recognise the 'role' of a noun in □ sentence (whether it r s Subject, Direct Object or Indirect Object) by its position in the sentence and/or by the use of prepositions. It uses prepositions and postpositions to indicate the role of a noun and its relationship to other words within a sentence. The third person singular (he, she, It) has two forms — u is used to refer to animate nouns (such as people and animals)., while in refers to inanimate objects (things).. These verbs can be used with nouns, adjectives or adverbs* Tm thirsty, teshne hastam (lit: thirsty am-I) You were thirsty, teshne buddi (lit: thirsty we re-you) In colloquial speech, hast can be omitted (except with 'he* she, if), but the personal suffix still remains, I’m thirsty. ) 30 Negatives NEGATIVES To form the negative, the prefixna- is placed before a verb. u be tehran raft (lit: he to Tehran went -he) He didn't go to Jehran. The sounds kh, gh, ' [glottal stop), d and h ore often mispronounced; 'kune' instead of 'khune' 'mofad' instead of Tna Tad' 'gand' instead of 'ghand' 'momm' instead of 'mohemm ' 'salam' instead of 'salam' * English speakers often forget to add a personal suffix to a verb, or use the wrong one, as in: 'man amad' instead of 'man amadam' (lit: \ come) [lit: I corned] * English speakers often place stress on the first syllable of a Persian word instead of the last, for example: sojbhu-ne' instead of sob-hu-n V MEETING PEOPLE I If an Iranian family invites you to their house, they'll most likely take you to the guestroom - the best place in the room is reserved for the guest. Alternatively, the eyebrows may be raised, (Body language is used in informal situations, and the polite way to indicate *yes’ and no' is wkhba Je , ‘yes’, oina , W.) HIP TO BE SQUARE Because the subject of a sentence is indicated in the verb, subject pronouns are optional In this pbrasebook, subject pronouns appear in square brackets. mo'arefi konain I'm pleased to meet you, &z ashnayitun khoshbakhtam I'm a friend of (Behzad). PRONOUNS SG 1 you (inf) you (pol) he/ she/it (animate) (inanimate] : if an H * 1 PL we you they - Verbs 25 VERBS Verbs in Persian change their form according to the person and number of the Subject as welt as for tense. - ■ to agree to come to cost depart to know (someone) to know (something] to ma ■:k to meet ! teshne am (lit: thirsty I) TO HAVE The worddashtan has a similar function as the verb 'to have’. } Possession 29 POSSESSION A possessive relationship between two nouns can be shown in either of two ways: 1 * The vowel e , known as ezafi, conveys a meaning of possession and ownership. u be tehran naraft (lit: he to Tehran no-went-he) For the future tense, na- is added to the first verb, as tn: He will go to Tehran. Immediately, the hospitality begins by serving tea and sweets. FIRST ENCOUNTERS j Jjl Since there arc few foreigners in Iran* people will generally be curious about yourkeshvar , 'country', and may ask a lot of questions about your culture. Subject and tense are indicated by the type of suffix which appears on a verb root. o need movafegh budan omadan ■ j arzid I to say to see Sr to stay to lake wjj! / , fahmidan 26 Verbs Present tense 1 he present tense is formed by adding: * the prefix mi- before a verb root; and * a personal suffix to the end of the verb root. ) 'lb order someone not to do something, add rhe prefix na- be- fore the verb root. It always takes a personal suffix (see page 32) ar the end of its verb rootdar, and appears directly after a noun in a sentence, have (dar) I have a book. In a sentence the possessor appears before what is possessed, and the two are linked by die vowel e . u be tehran khahad raft (he to Tehran want-he went) He wont go to Tehran. Iranians are hospitable, especially towards foreigners. Knowing a few formal Persian words for giving thanks and saying goodbye will help show your appreciation. At the same time, Iranians are very hospitable toward foreigners and, even after a short conversation, may invite you to their home. Verb roots are formed by deleting the suffix -dan from an infinitive. an tark kardar shendkhtan % to to return to understand Ivl-Ivlvv.q ! ‘v'v ■ ■ - - ' - ■ sakhlan moldghatikdrdan ruyaz dashtan taqih dadan I *1 i pargashtan goftan didan mdndan bordan .v .v.j.;.,. Present-Tense Personal Suffixes 1 you he/ she/it ’dm A -ad we you (pi) they -tm 'id -and eat khor I ear. man ketab daram (lit: I book have- 1) COMPOUND VERBS Persian has a large number of compound verbs. The linking vowel e rakes the form ye when rhe noun it follows ends in a vowel. ) To form a question in written Persian, the wordaya , does", is used at rhe start of a sentence. u be tefuran nakhahad raft (he to Tehran no-want- he went) Key Verbs 3 1 KEY VERBS Regular verbs Most Persian verbs are regular, taking the same suffixes.

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FROM THE AUTHOR Yavar gives his thanks to his parents and uncle, Bah ram, who gave their support during his years of studying Persian, He also thanks his Iranian friends in Melbourne for their encouragement while he wrote this book, with special thanks to Darkish Salehi who helped edit the Persian script. 27 19 To Be 28 To Hove 28 Compound Verbs 28 Possession 29 Questions 29 Negatives ... zc z jfl £ zhe zh 1 ve v X he Cm ■M ye W* rsd HH 15 PRONUNCIATION PRONUNCIATION 16 Transliterations TRANSLITERATIONS The transliteration system in this phrasebook reflects the pro- nunciation of spoken Persian, which is much more economical than the more formal written style (see page 1 0), The equivalent Persian script is in the written form. It uses prepositions (before the noun) and postpositions (after rhe noun) as labels to indicate the role of a noun within a sentence, * Nominative Case The Subject of a sentence - who or what es pe forming the action — is never marked with a preposition or postposition The bus left, u tub us raft (lit: the- bus went-it) * ra Accusative Case Placing ra after a noun shows that the noun is directly affected by the action of rhe Subject I saw Shiraz.

He has also translated several books from English into Persian. ARTICLES Persian has different ways to express articles like c the\ V and an* * Placing the word yek, meaning one’, before a noun gives the meaning of the indefinite articles V and an . diruz be yek hotel raftam (lit: yesterday to one hotel went-I) 20 Nouns Placing the sound-i after a noun also makes rhe noun indefinite: I saw a boy in the street, pesari ra dar khiyaban didam (lit: boy- a in the street saw-I) Nouns not marked byyek or-i are definite: I saw the museum.

Yavar completed a Ph D in linguistics in Melbourne, and has published his thesis, A Grammar af Azars Including Comparisons with Persian (published by Lincoln Europa). man muze ra didam (lit: I museum ra saw-I) (See page 21 for an explanation ofra ,) NOUNS Plurals Mourns are made plural by adding the suffix-ha to the end of the noun: book ketab car mash in books ketab ha cars mashinha In spoken Persian, -ha is reduced to a : books ketaba However, nouns aren’t pluralised when they appear after a number or a quantity noun such as 'some 1 : one house two houses ten houses yek khane (lit: one house) do khane (lit: two house) dah khane (lit: three house) A few nouns borrowed from Arabic don’t follow this rule of pi ura lisa tion: festival eyd festivals a'yad f Nouns 2 \ Case Case shows the function of a noun or pronoun in a sentence, (sec page 22 for an explanation of grammatical terms).

(PERSIAN) PH RASE BOOK THE LANGUAGE OF IRAN bnehf planet We'f J hike up the masir e kuh art d drop in af the /acaf ghahve khune to sip aromatic chayi * Then, under the cool night skies and the fu\ mah above, we'Jf fake it in turns to recite she% and discuss the hast/- hole, ammo ... yes, sure V From mystics to museums, barbers to bazaars, and art to archaeology, jump into the event with this phrosebaok ... Lonely Planet does not allow Its name or logo to be appropriated by commercial establishments, such as retailers, restaurants or hotels. 3 his section provides a basic grammar of Persian, although it cant cover all aspects of the grammar in these few pages.

* dear pronunciation guide for the scrupulous speaker * action-packed vocabulary for outdoor devotees * classical Persian poetry for that inspirational moment * savouries and sweets to summon up a feast * language tips for getting the perfect bargain * comprehensive two-way dictionary Also available from Lonely Planet: Iran & Middle East. Please let us know of any misuses: www Jonelyplanet.com/ip Lonely Planet and the Lonely Planet logo are trade marks of Lonely Planet and are registered rn the U. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. .* v* ; a as the 'a in Tar 1 (lone ;er than a) ■ ■ ■■■ •: mi- ... You 11 find chat Persian grammar is regular, making it relatively easy to remember.

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