Piltdown hoax dating
However, independent DNA testing revealed the skull to be Native American, belonging to a child who probably had hydrocephalus, or ‘water-in-the-brain’, a congenital disorder where there is too much fluid in the skull.
Marken children brought up off the island do not have sloped foreheads, and the Marken people are quite able to have healthy children with other humans, showing that they are indeed homo sapiens.
This skull had the upper face and tall cranium of a human, but the long, sloping jaw of an ape.
The skull was in fact a human cranium coupled with an orangutan mandible and filed-down chimpanzee teeth, all stained to appear more ancient.
Unfortunately, the shape of the brain does not even closely correspond to the shape of the skull, and moreover, the areas of the brain said to carry traits such as ‘conscientiousness’ and ‘suavity’ have since been shown to be incorrect.
However, phrenology did increase interest in neuroscience and indirectly led to much more scientifically sound knowledge.